Military service and the loss of Polish citizenship after 1950
The Act of February 4, 1950 on universal military duty was in force from May 29, 1950 to April 22, 1959.
Under it, men aged 18 to 50 inclusive were subject to military obligation. Persons holding the officer rank to colonel were subject to this obligation until the age of 60, and the general rank - up to 65.
Under the provisions of the 1950 Act, persons who refused or otherwise avoided military service or helped others to avoid it could be punished with imprisonment or even the death penalty. In addition, the court ruled against them for the loss of public and civil rights of honor. However, the loss of Polish citizenship was not automatic. Importantly, however, service in a foreign army did not result in the loss of Polish citizenship by virtue of the Act of February 4, 1950.
Therefore, when the new Act on Polish Citizenship entered into force on January 19, 1951, the legal basis for the loss of Polish citizenship as a result of service in a foreign army disappeared, and from then on, service in a foreign army did not result in the loss of Polish citizenship.
Pursuant to subsequent acts amending the provisions on Polish citizenship, no regulations concerning sanctions for refusing military service in the form of loss of Polish citizenship were introduced either.
Ultimately, the obligation of universal military service in Poland was suspended on January 1, 2010 in order to professionalize the army.